Laser-optical particle counting compared to pore blockage technique

article courtesy of Pamas GMBH

Fluid contamination can be measured by various different analysing methods. In this blog post, we compare the laser optical method of light extinction against pore blockage.

How does the Light Extinction method work?

The illumination source is a laser diode. The laser light beam is collimated by a lens array and formed to a straight and flat beam focused by a transfer optic at the orifice. The beam passes through the measuring cell and interacts with a photo diode. The photo diode measures the light intensity behind the contaminated fluid stream in the orifice. The photo diode operates in a photo conductive method which delivers a current proportional to the incident light intensity. Each single particle flowing through the measuring cell creates a change of current on the photo diode; the sensor electronics evaluate this change of current as a particle signal. The shadow surface represents the size of the particle.

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On-Demand webinars from Formulaction

Formulaction the leader in stability analysis of concentrated dispersions recently made their most popular webinars available on demand.  These webinars give a practical insight in their unique technologies for stability monitoring, high shear viscosity measurements, micro-rheology and thermal analysis. 

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Particle sizing or Particle Counting ?

written by Albrecht Truter

I'm frequently asked how much sample we require for laser diffraction particle size analysis. I suspect  in many cases I'm asked simply because my customer suspects they might have to little sample for the test!

In any case for a dry sample we ask for at least a couple of grams of sample (about a teaspoon).  For realy fine material ( less than 100 um) we can even measure 0.2 g of sample although it is not ideal. Of course if the size distribution starts at  0.5 um and stretches to 2- 3 mm we prefer a teaspoon size sample !

We are also frequently asked to measure water samples from clean  drinking water to turbid raw or even waste water.

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Particle Measuring Systems Releases Microbial Monitoring Instrument With Antibacterial Housing

New MiniCapt® Mobile microbial contamination monitoring instrument now with antibacterial housing to further reduce contamination introduced during monitoring activities.    

January 26, 2021 Boulder, CO – The MiniCaptMobile Microbial Air Sampler with a new antibacterial housing from Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) leverages the latest technologies in material science and antimicrobial design to help prevent the introduction of bacterial contamination created during monitoring activities.  The robust antibacterial enclosure is easily disinfected and designed to eliminate sites for bacterial deposits and biofilm formation. 

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Differences in Aerosol Particle Counter Results

So you’ve just bought a new particle counter, you’re testing it with your fleet, and… the counts don’t match. Does this mean there’s something wrong? What happened? Why is there a difference? And is there anything you can do? We’ll discuss all of this and more in this week’s handy blog.

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Top 3 webinars from Particle Measurement Systems

courtesy of Particle Measurement Systems

Grab a cup of coffee and check out the most frequently viewed Particle Measuring Systems Webinars for 2020! Learn more about EU GMP Annex 1, Active Air Sampling, Particle Counting Variation and more!

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Boosting COVID-19 Vaccine Development and Efficiency

courtesy of Formulaction 

Quick Stability & Resuspendability Measurement of Adjuvants and New vaccine generation by Turbiscan


As of early-December, there are 237 coronavirus vaccine projects1 around the world today, developed using very different techniques. 
Some vaccines under development are using new methods without adjuvants such as mRNA based vaccines (Ex: Moderna, Pfizer). These vaccines can be developed faster but they require specific storage conditions and two injections to be effective. 

Other vaccines are based on “classic” approaches such as using adjuvants but this requires a longer development period. Additionally, this classic approach usually takes less expense to manufacture.

Even if adjuvant are not used in the today’s COVID-19 vaccines, experts in the community believe 2 that the next generation of COVID-19 vaccines will use adjuvants to boost immune response.

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Langmuir trough module for DCAT 25

dcatHave you ever thought that you can add a Langmuir-Trough for the measurement of Surface Pressure to your standard Force-Tensiometer? This  feature you can find within the DataPhysics Instruments DCAT 25 accessory range.


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The Benefits of Handheld Particle Counting with the HandiLaz® Mini II

courtesy of Particle Measurement Systems

Modern manufacturing frequently requires clean environments such as cleanrooms that are designed, constructed, and sustained to enable the highest yields possible while also hitting predictable throughput targets. This commonly involves achieving a specified cleanroom classification to establish the level of cleanroom performance, and subsequent sustaining efforts that are efficient and nimble. Having the right particle detection equipment for this application is necessary to accomplish these tasks.

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Specialist liquid particle counting solutions from Pamas

An enquiry the other day for a B-ratio particle count analyser reminded me about the extensive range of specialist solutions Pamas GMBH offers. In this short article I will try to introduce you to some of them.

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Nanocellulose: Preparation, Dispersion, and Applications

courtesy of Formulaction

Cellulose is the world’s most abundant biopolymer and is responsible for the strength in most plants. The key to the strength of this material is its structure: carefully ordered cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) build-up to form large, macromolecular constructs.1

These two types of nanocellulose have a high aspect ratio and show great promise for increasing strength in composite materials and stabilizing suspensions. CNFs and CNCs are also non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and are obtained from a sustainable source – an increasing focus in many industries.1,2

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Particle Measuring Systems Releases Next Generation Remote Particle Counter

courtesy of Particle Measuring Systems

The IsoAir® Pro-E Remote Particle Counter from Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) leverages the latest technologies to streamline cleanroom monitoring while meeting global regulations including EU GMP Annex 1, ISO 14644-2, and is part of a 21 CFR Part 11 solution. The robust 316L stainless steel enclosure is liquid resistant with an IP65 rating which protects the unit during cleaning and disinfection activities. This is the first particle counter with built in vacuum designed for use with the Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) process.

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Safety in oil transformers due to PAMAS particle counters

Replacing Settle Plates with Active Air Sampling

Settle plates were adequate in the past to meet regulations, but the new approach requires active air sampling.

mobileActive Air Sampling for settle plates by Particle Measuring SystemsThe most universally applied method for cleanroom classification is the one suggested in 1963 by Federal Standard 209 of the USA. In this standard the number of particles equal to and greater than 0.5 µm is measured in one cubic foot of air. This count is then used to classify the room (1 particle = class 1; 10 particles = class 10…). In the same period, scientific publications concerning healthcare facilities suggested that airborne particles carrying micro-organisms associated with human disease were usually found in the 4-20 µm equivalent diameter range. This contamination can be detected by settle plates.

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The Pamas SBSS - a user perspective

SBSSvidRecently I had the opportunity to use a Pamas SBSS ( Syringe Bottle Sampling System) at a customer. The instrument is the flagship liquid particle counter from Pamas GMBH.

What struck me immediately is how easy the instrument is to use! I am so used to controlling an instrument via software and PC these days, it is almost a novelty to just control the instrument via a touchpad! 

It has a simple menu system that allows the user to operate the instrument directly ( ofcourse normal software control via PC is also possible).

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PAMAS S40 - a milestone in the company's history

text supplied courtesy of PAMAS

PAMAS40bOnline and offline, at ambient pressure and under high pressure, in the laboratory or in the field - the versatility of the PAMAS S40 is evident and testifies to the years of continuous development work that has ensured that PAMAS has long been the world market leader in the field of particle measurement.For almost 30 years, PAMAS GmbH has been manufacturing automatic particle counters for liquids that can determine in a matter of minutes whether and to what extent a liquid is contaminated. A milestone in the history of development was laid with the introduction of the PAMAS S40 in 1999 . 


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Data Trending Requirements Annex 1, Rev 12

 Written by 

Data Trending and Alert/Action Levels definition are new requirements in the latest EU GMP Annex 1, Revision 12 draft. Trends allow you to quickly and easily identify changes in your cleanroom data and leverage this to make effective decisions, changes, and adjustments often before problems occur. Here we discuss three key components in the latest Annex 1 draft:

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European Project RHEOLACT

courtesy of Formulaction

RHEOLACT’ (MP0007019) is an innovative regional project, co-funded by the European Union. The Engineering School INP Purpan, the cheese producing company Marzac, and Formulaction are part of the project consortium. The focus of the work is to use new measurement techniques for the characterization of dairy products. In two main working groups, methods are developed for the use of RheolaserMASTER as a powerful tool for characterization of the textural properties of yogurt and for determination of the optimal cutting time of soft cheese preparations.

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Continuous Viable Air Monitoring per Annex 1 Draft, Rev 12

Continuous viable air monitoring is now a consideration, or even a recommendation o  the new sections of Annex 1 draft, rev 12. Here I discuss this as well as the overall environmental monitoring requirements as part of Particle Measuring System’s series on the newest Annex 1 draft. Learn what Annex 1 is saying it will

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Particle measurement of therapeutic protein solutions

bagtext supplied courtesy of PAMAS

Have you ever tried to perform particle measurement of therapeutic protein solutions? You will encounter several challenges.  There is extremely limited sample available because  therapeutic protein solutions are very expensive. In addition, the samples are usually highly viscous. How can reliable values be measured without diluting the samples or having to resort to the subjective and time-consuming microscopic analysis?

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Design of robust superhydrophobic surfaces

courtesy of Dataphysics

OCA200The properties of superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable in many industries and applications. Unfortunately these surfaces often suffer from low durability. They are for example easily scratched by hard objects and their superhydrophobicity is destroyed.

In the latest Nature cover story Wang, D., Sun, Q., Hokkanen, M.J., Ras, R.H.A. et al. introduce a new strategy to create superhydrophobic surfaces that have a high mechanical stability. They designed a material matrix that combines the superhydrophobic nanostructure with a highly durable macrostructure. This new material can be even scratched with a razorblade or with sandpaper without losing its superhydrophobic properties. Due to its transparent nature the new material matrix is an ideal candidate for a new kind of self-cleaning cover material for solar panels.

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Increased safety in air travel with PAMAS

text supplied by Pamas

In the event of a drop in pressure on board of an aircraft, oxygen cylinders are the safety solution for all passengers and crew. Unfortunately, these lifesaving components can be fatal if the maintenance carried out is incorrect or substandard. This happened in 2008.

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Beginner Guide to Particle Technology

The first in a three part series, this Particle Counting Technology Guide covers the basic details and concepts around particle monitoring and controlling particle contamination. Written by the global experts in contamination monitoring, in a simple to follow format, this particle counting guide has been the industry standard for more than 30 years, with constant revisions to keep up with new approaches, regulations, and technologies. Get the guide here:


The application of Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS in food and food ingredients



Dynamic Vapour Sorption (DVS) has long been used for investigating the interaction of water vapour with foods and food ingredients. 
an Nice overview document give several examples of using DVS for food-related applications including: water activity, moisture content, moisture-induced phase transitions, water-vapour transmission rates, and flavour loss.Learn More

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Cleanliness classes for oils & fuels

Courtesy of Pamas

 To display particle counts in oil and fuel samples and even water-based hydraulic fluids, in a simplified and uniform way, results are often reported in cleanliness classes according to a specific reporting standard. In the following  article we discuss the most common and important international standards.

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Different Ways to Measure Viscosity

FluidicamRheo2The viscous properties of a liquid or amorphous solid are primarily determined by inter-particle
forces within the solution, including friction and attraction between molecules in the macrostructure.
These Van der Waals forces are critical facets of a sample’s resistance to deformation, or flow, which
defines the material’s viscosity.

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Cleanroom Classification

LasairIIIaWritten by Maurizio Della Pietra
Part 1 of 5 part blog on : Cleanroom Classification – Qualification – Monitoring Per EU GMP Annex 1, rev 12 draft

Cleanroom Classification
Annex 1 provides essentially the same cleanroom classification definition as ISO 14644-1: 2015 which

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Turbiscan Classic, Lab , Tower or AGS - which model is best for me ?

turbiscanfam2by1Looking at the 4 models ( Turbiscan Classic 2/ Lab/ Tower/ AGS) it is easy to get confused and the natural question is to ask which model is best for me ? This article will attempt to give greater clarity on the differences between the models and the unique features each model offer.

All 4 models scan a liquid or paste sample for instability by detecting very small changes in sample concentration or size in tiny slices of the sample in a glass tube. This technology (invented by Formulaction back in the 1990's) offers an objective, reliable and above all quick way to decide if a product or formulation is stable or unstable. In most cases product stability is determined in 2 to 5 days at most. Multiple measurements is made over minutes to hours (depending on the sample).

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